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Allusions of Exodus in Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath

Spies and Fruit

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Allusion of the Twelve Spies of Judah discovering grapes

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13:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
13:2 Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel: of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, every one a ruler among them.
13:3 And Moses by the commandment of the LORD sent them from the wilderness of Paran: all those men were heads of the children of Israel.
13:4 And these were their names: of the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur.
13:5 Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori.
13:6 Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
13:7 Of the tribe of Issachar, Igal the son of Joseph.
13:8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Oshea the son of Nun.
13:9 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu.
13:10 Of the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the son of Sodi.
13:11 Of the tribe of Joseph, namely, of the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi the son of Susi.
13:12 Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli.
13:13 Of the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son of Michael.
13:14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi the son of Vophsi.
13:15 Of the tribe of Gad, Geuel the son of Machi.
13:16 These are the names of the men which Moses sent to spy out the land. And Moses called Oshea the son of Nun Jehoshua.
13:17 And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and said unto them, Get you up this way southward, and go up into the mountain:
13:18 And see the land, what it is, and the people that dwelleth therein, whether they be strong or weak, few or many;
13:19 And what the land is that they dwell in, whether it be good or bad; and what cities they be that they dwell in, whether in tents, or in strong holds;
13:20 And what the land is, whether it be fat or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land. Now the time was the time of the firstripe grapes.
13:21 So they went up, and searched the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, as men come to Hamath.
13:22 And they ascended by the south, and came unto Hebron; where Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the children of Anak, were. (Now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.)
13:23 And they came unto the brook of Eshcol, and cut down from thence a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it between two upon a staff; and they brought of the pomegranates, and of the figs.
13:24 The place was called the brook Eshcol, because of the cluster of grapes which the children of Israel cut down from thence.
13:25 And they returned from searching of the land after forty days.

 
-Book of Numbers, Old Testament

Just like with the twelve members of the Joad family,  the Israelites set out with twelve spies, one from each of the tribes into the land of Canaan.  They come back with tales of great abundance in fruits including grapes and claim that the "surely it floweth with milk and honey" refering to the land itself.  In comparison to the Joads they too encountered great opposition from the many groups that live there such as the Hittites, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Amalekites, all whom do not want the Israelites to enter Canaan and eventually war with them.  This ties into the police officers and Californians who tried at great lengths to discourage the Joads and Okies. 

Created by Phil, Jesse and Ben